|Rivers and lakes in
the usa are very clean most are spring fed you can see in the
water which is very rare in the uk.
Air pollution comes
from many different sources such as factories, power plants, dry
cleaners, cars, buses, trucks and even windblown dust and
wildfires. Air pollution can threaten the health of human
beings, trees, lakes, crops, and animals, as well as damage the
ozone layer and buildings. Air pollution also can cause haze,
reducing visibility in national parks and wilderness areas. EPA
protects human health and the environment through the regulatory
process and voluntary programs such as Energy Star and Commuter
Choice. Under the Clean Air Act, EPA sets limits on how much of
a pollutant is allowed in the air anywhere in the United States.
Although national air quality has improved over the last 20
years, many challenges remain in protecting public health and
the environment. EPA's goal is to have clean air to breathe for
this generation and those to follow.
According to the National Academy
of Sciences, the Earth's surface temperature has risen by about
1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated
warming during the past two decades. There is new and stronger
evidence that most of the warming over the last 50 years is
attributable to human activities. Human activities have altered
the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup
of greenhouse gases – primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and
Energy from the sun drives the
earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface; in
turn, the earth radiates energy back into space. Atmospheric
greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases)
trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like
the glass panels of a greenhouse.
Without this natural “greenhouse effect,” temperatures would be
much lower than they are now, and life as known today would not
be possible. Instead, thanks to greenhouse gases, the earth’s
average temperature is a more hospitable 60°F. However, problems
may arise when the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases
Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the Earth's upper
atmosphere and at ground level. Ozone can be "good" or "bad" for
people’s health and for the environment, depending on its
location in the atmosphere.
In the troposphere, the air closest to the Earth's surface,
ground-level or "bad" ozone is a pollutant that is a significant
health risk, especially for children with asthma. It also
damages crops, trees and other vegetation. It is a main
ingredient of urban smog. Motor vehicle exhaust and industrial
emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as
natural sources emit NOx and VOC, that help to form
ozone. Sunlight and hot weather cause ground-level ozone to
form in harmful concentrations in the air. As a result, it is
known as a summertime air pollutant. Many urban areas tend to
have high levels of "bad" ozone, but even rural areas are also
subject to increased ozone levels because wind carries ozone and
pollutants that form it hundreds of miles away from their
In 1999, recycling and composting activities prevented about
64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and
incinerators. Today, this country recycles 28 percent of its
waste, a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years.
While recycling has grown in general, recycling of specific
materials has grown even more drastically: 42 percent of all
paper, 40 percent of all plastic soft drink bottles, 55 percent
of all aluminum beer and soft drink cans, 57 percent of all
steel packaging, and 52 percent of all major appliances are now
recycled. Twenty years ago, only one curbside recycling program
existed in the United States, which collected several materials
at the curb. By 1998, 9,000 curbside programs and 12,000
recyclable drop-off centers had sprouted up across the nation.
As of 1999, 480 materials recovery facilities had been
established to process the collected materials.
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|Organic Foods are very big in
England. River and sea pollution is a big problem in the uk a
lot of sewerage is run in to many of the beaches making it quite
unsafe to swim, Southsea beach was a prime example till it was sorted
They are very keen on encouraging car sharing and use of
public transport in England. Emissions tests are done on all uk
cars once a year as long as over tests these are all done in an
MOT Car Testing it is a legal requirement.
Recycling is highly encouraged all houses are given a
separate recycling waste bin which is collected weekly.
London pollution is a big problem you see a lot of cyclists
with masks or scarves round their mouths due to all the gases
from cars and buses etc.
Air quality has improved since the
1950s, but a variety of pollutants still affect our air, such as
carbon monoxide, lead, benzene and 1,3-butadiene, sulphur
dioxide and more.
Our use of energy and transport and
industrial activity cause emissions to the atmosphere.
Environmental impacts can occur locally or at great distances
from the emissions.
Ozone in the upper atmosphere shields the earth from harmful
ultra violet (UV) radiation emitted by the sun. Man-made
chemicals have damaged this “ozone layer”, allowing more UV
radiation to pass through.
In England and Wales, six pollution incidents had a major
impact on air quality in 2003. Acid rain has been tackled for
over a decade with some success.
Climate change could cause droughts and floods, erosion
and damage to buildings and roads. The Environment
Agency is working to control the causes of climate
change and adapt for the changes.
Flooding is a concern for everyone because it can
endanger both life and property. It can occur as a
result of rivers or sewerage systems overflowing, tidal
surges in estuaries and the impact of the sea directly
on low-lying coastal land.
The weather varies regionally but overall, the
climate of England and Wales is mild. Storms can cause
severe damage. The number and strength of storms may be
Sea level rose by 1.5mm per year in the 20th century.
Climate change may affect sea levels. Ozone in the upper
atmosphere shields the earth from harmful ultra violet
(UV) radiation emitted by the sun. Man-made chemicals
have damaged this “ozone layer”, allowing more UV
radiation to pass through.
The Environment Agency monitors several
different aspects of river water quality. Read
on for more information about biological and
chemical quality, pollution sources, fish stocks
and more. Most estuaries in England and Wales
are of good or fair quality. Read on for
information about estuaries, bathing water,
shellfish waters, beach litter and more.
Despite the copious rainfall we receive in
the UK, there are limited natural and man made
capacities for storage. For more about water
resources, groundwater and water abstraction,
read on. Nutrients are essential for aquatic
life, but high levels can upset ecosystems,
create unsightly algal blooms and even threaten
our health. Find out more about blue-green
algae, marine algal blooms and nitrate in rivers
and groundwater in this section.
Freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes and
ponds, and wetlands such as fens, bogs and reed
beds. In this section we look at ponds and
In England and Wales, there were 94 pollution
incidents with major impact on water quality
during 2003. Our latest annual pesticides report
tells you about pesticides in the environment
and what we are doing about them. This replaces
the downloadable reports of previous years.
Fertilizers must be used with care to avoid
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